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Manganese

Introduction

Manganese oxide is a magnetic material that can be used as MRI contrast agent. They have a positive T1 contrast ability, intracellular uptake and accumulation, can be labeled efficiently and have safe clearance with minimal side effects. The reference article showed these properties with nanoparticles with a diameter of 25 nm.

Basic data

NameManganese (Mn)
Configuration4s2 3d5
Electrons25
Group7
Abundance0.04%
Magnetic typeparamagnetic
Melting point1246 ℃
Boiling point2061 ℃

Key trends at the nanoscale

Applications

The pie chart presented here is based on the distribution of research literature across various fields of application research over the period 1992 to 2017. The value listed is the number of papers discussing Manganese related to nanoparticles, sorted by application field. This gives an indication which applications are being or have been researched and where the core interest is. However, the distribution does not correct for the total publications in a given application field. So, a high score for a given application field indicates there is considerable interest in the element in that field, but it may also mean the field itself has considerable more publications than other fields. Therefore, the pie chart gives a general overview only. The application fields themselves are discussed in more detail on our Nanoparticles page.

Additionally, the total number of publications provides some insight in the amount of research into Manganese used in nanoparticles in general. Typically, a well-researched element will show 1000 or more publications over the 1992-2017 period.

Alloys and composites

The graph below presents an analysis of literature on core-shell, alloy and composite particles with manganese as a component of such nanoparticles. It shows possible combinations for alloy or composite nanoparticles and reflects research interest during the 1992-2017 period.