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Palladium

Introduction

Palladium nanoparticles are mostly used for their catalytic activity in C-C bond formation. Catalysis of important reactions like the Suzuki, Heck, Sonogashira, Stille, Hiyama and Negishi reactions are possible. The best results are obtained with particle sizes smaller than 10 nm and the metal-insulator transition is around 50 atoms, corresponding to a diameter of 1 nm. See the reference article for an extensive list of all involved reactions.

Basic data

NamePalladium (Pd)
Configuration4d10
Electrons46
Group10
AbundanceNegligible
Magnetic typeparamagnetic
Melting point1555 ℃
Boiling point2963 ℃

Key trends at the nanoscale

Applications

The pie chart presented here is based on the distribution of research literature across various fields of application research over the period 1992 to 2017. The value listed is the number of papers discussing Palladium related to nanoparticles, sorted by application field. This gives an indication which applications are being or have been researched and where the core interest is. However, the distribution does not correct for the total publications in a given application field. So, a high score for a given application field indicates there is considerable interest in the element in that field, but it may also mean the field itself has considerable more publications than other fields. Therefore, the pie chart gives a general overview only. The application fields themselves are discussed in more detail on our Nanoparticles page.

Additionally, the total number of publications provides some insight in the amount of research into Palladium used in nanoparticles in general. Typically, a well-researched element will show 1000 or more publications over the 1992-2017 period.

Alloys and composites

The graph below presents an analysis of literature on core-shell, alloy and composite particles with palladium as a component of such nanoparticles. It shows possible combinations for alloy or composite nanoparticles and reflects research interest during the 1992-2017 period.