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Reproducible, stable, pure nanoparticle aerosols

With the VSP-G1 Nanoparticle Generator, a stable and clean flow of well-defined pure metallic nanoparticle aerosols can be generated without the use of chemicals, providing the ideal basis for aerosol research. Producing the desired particles becomes as easy as pushing a button.


very small particles 0 - 20nm

mimic real world environment

stability & reproducibility

Mix & Match materials

Different materials can be used in the same manner, which means that it is easy to quantify the toxicological effects of e.g. AgO, ZnO and CuO in the same experiment. Carbon can be used as a standard for nano-carbon emissions by for example cars, scooters and airplanes. Radioactive materials can be processed into nanomaterial as well, which means the biodistribution of nanoparticles can be determined in-vivo.


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Flemming Cassee - RIVM

Flemming Cassee of the RIVM - Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu - uses the VSP-G1 in combination with the Vitrocell system, to study the biodistribution of gold particles in mice. 

"For our research in the safety of airborne nanomaterials, VSPARTICLE's VSP-G1 enables us to generate very small particles. We use this both as a reference method, as well as for our research into the distribution of very small nanoparticles in the body after inhalation"

Flemming Cassee - RIVM

Nanotoxicology research

Risk assesment and regulation

Quantification of the toxic effects of nanoparticles remains challenging, because of lack of reproducibility in toxicological testing. Current researchers are using nanomaterials synthesised in liquids giving rise to uncertainty regarding the influence of contaminating species like surfactants or solvents, making the comparison and reproducibility of different studies difficult. By using pure particles, produced in a very controlled manner with the VSP-G1, data on toxic effects can be gathered and reproduced, supporting a stable process for risk assesment. 


Read more on nanotoxicology 


Material versatility

With the VSP-G1 you can use any kind of (semi)conductive material for your nanoparticles and use argon, nitrogen or air as a carrier gas.The VSP-G1 uses two electrodes as base material to generate sub 20 nm particles.  All solid (semi)conductive materials that can be processed into electrodes can be used in this device.


Explore the material database        Contact us

User friendly and safe-by-design

Nanoparticles at the push of a button


Spark ablation technology is a physics based process, generating pure particles in a very controlled setting, without the use of chemicals. Our co-founder Andreas Schmidtt-Ott invented the technology in 1988 and was then developed into an easy to use device. 


Read more 


Shift size distribution

by adjusting gas flow

Contact us for more information

Output stability

From the lab & our customers

Technical specifications

110-240 V AC

Casing ca. 47x34x15 cm - Reactor added height ca. 10 cm

19 kg

Gas inlet/outlet
10 mm tubes (with Swagelok connectors)


Manual operation & remote control via RS232

Operating window

Flow rate
1-30 L/min

Supported: Ar or N2 (recommended purity 5.0)
Unsupported: He, Ne, Xe, Kr
Contact VSPARTICLE for use of reactive gases such as air, H2.

Electrode material
Comes with Cu electrodes.
Various other metals (e.g. Ag, Au, Pt, W, Ni), semiconductors and carbon are possible.

Primary particle size
1 atom to 20 nm
Ablation rate
~0.01-100 mg/h (material dependent)

Typical particle concentration
108-1011 cm-3

  • Very small particles 0 – 20nm 
  • Pure particles, no surfactants 
  • Material versatility: all (semi) conductive materials, metal oxides, carbon. 
  • Mix & Match: combine pure source materials, alloys and mixes 
  • High stability, 98% in long term experiments 
  • High concentration. Output up to 20mg/hour 
  • Ease of use, tune output with just a few settings
  • Reproducible output by using the same settings 
  • Mimics real world 
  • Atmospheric pressure and room temperature 
  • Single particles, high surface area 
  • Air as carrier gas possible 
  • Physiological realistic testing 
  • Compatible with air liquid interfaces like Vitrocell 

How can I mimic real life situations with the system? 

The VSP-G1 is worldwide the only device that can make gas-phase atomic clusters and nanoparticles at standard pressure and temperature, for any (semi) conductive material. Furthermore, it is possible to shift the whole size distribution under 5 nm (only primary particles). 


What particle sizes can I make?

The primary particle size is 0-20 nm. 


What are the current studies conducted with the VSP-G1 in nanotoxicology research?

Currently we are conducting research together with the Dutch Health Institute (RIVM) with Flemming Cassee, who uses the G1 both as a reference method and uses radioactive gold particles to study the biodistribution of clusters in mice. Furthermore, we have projects to determine the toxicity of FeO nanoparticles together with Delft University and carbon nanoparticle toxicity with Roel Schins at the University of Dusseldorf.


How stable is the output?

The VSP-G1 can be tuned and standard deviation can be reduced to below 2% of the output.  


What materials are compatible? Can I make oxides and alloys?

The VSP-G1 can be used with any (semi-) conductive material, amongst which carbon, copper and gold. The material is used in the system in de form of electrodes. By adding air to the gasflow, oxides can be made. Learn more about compatible materials here.

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How to order?

The VSP-G1 Metal Aerosol Generator has bench-top dimensions and is designed to fit most lab-tables and fume hoods. If you wish to set it up in your own lab, you can opt for either buying or leasing the nanoparticle generator. It is also possible to work in our lab or let vsparticle provide you with some test samples. Just contact our sales team or complete the contact form to see which option fits your situation and research best. 


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