Germanium, like silicon, shows luminescence properties. The reference article shows that nanoparticles with diameters between 1 and 8 nm emit light in the near UV, violet, blue and green spectral regions. The photoluminescence quantum yields are sufficiently high (4-15%) to qualify for labelling use.

Basic data

NameGermanium (Ge)
Configuration4s2 4p2 3d10
Magnetic typeDiamagnetic
Melting point938 ℃
Boiling point2833 ℃

Key trends at the nanoscale


The pie chart presented here is based on the distribution of research literature across various fields of application research over the period 1992 to 2017. The value listed is the number of papers discussing Germanium related to nanoparticles, sorted by application field. This gives an indication which applications are being or have been researched and where the core interest is. However, the distribution does not correct for the total publications in a given application field. So, a high score for a given application field indicates there is considerable interest in the element in that field, but it may also mean the field itself has considerable more publications than other fields. Therefore, the pie chart gives a general overview only. The application fields themselves are discussed in more detail on our Nanoparticles page.

Additionally, the total number of publications provides some insight in the amount of research into Germanium used in nanoparticles in general. Typically, a well-researched element will show 1000 or more publications over the 1992-2017 period.

Alloys and composites

The graph below presents an analysis of literature on core-shell, alloy and composite particles with germanium as a component of such nanoparticles. It shows possible combinations for alloy or composite nanoparticles and reflects research interest during the 1992-2017 period.